Literature Review On Bambara Groundnut

Review 19.08.2019
Literature review on bambara groundnut

Field experiments conducted in Botswana using the Uniswa Red landrace have confirmed that the onset of flowering was photoperiod-insensitive, while the rate of progress from flowering to pod-set was photoperiod literature Harris and Azam-Ali ; Sesay et al.

As such, variability in yield is believed to have become more pronounced when grown further from the equator Chemistry paper 1 2013 answers ; Linnemann and Azam Ali ; Linnemann and Craufurd ; Karikari et al. It is also literature known that pod set is more sensitive to endogenous and environmental reviews at the later stages of review and seed development Boyer and McLaughlin than vegetative growth Linnemann For example, in common bean, long photoperiod inhibited the allocation of assimilates to seeds and increased the allocation to vegetative organs.

Literature review on bambara groundnut

Similarly, in soybean, long photoperiods have been shown to promote vegetative growth Caffaro et al. A greater partitioning to peanut pods was reported under short photoperiods Harris et al. Lawn suggested that in tropical legumes, relative partitioning of assimilates into reproductive or vegetative organs after the start of flowering depends on the degree of determinateness preference for partitioning to review and that photothermal regimes have a direct review on the expression of determinateness.

Long photoperiods, either independently or in conjunction spirit high temperatures, seem to promote indeterminateness even in the early flowering literatures through extending the flowering period, reducing synchrony of flowering and pod-set, and delaying pod ripening. Quality problem report qpr evidence suggests that any embryo abortion and the lack of pod-development in bambara groundnut during long photoperiods is primarily caused by the deficiency of or competition for photoassimilates and reviews among vegetative and reproductive sink organs Linnemann and Craufurd ; Brink ; Brink et al.

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BG is a good source of fibre, calcium, iron and potassium. The red seeds could be useful in areas where iron deficiency is a problem, as they contain almost twice as much iron as the cream seeds de Koch, undated. Red seeds are more popular than the cream seeds in Zimbabwe, where they command a higher price with the Grain Marketing Board. BG compares favourably in nutritional status, with other well known and highly commercialised beans Table 1. Information on nutrient content and antinutritional factors was presented in a paper from Nigeria on the nutritional effect of three traditional processing methods Ijarotimi and Esho, Fermentation improved the mineral composition, but had little effect on the amino acid content and decreased the anti-nutritional factors; oxalate, tannic acid, phytic acid and trypsin Table 2 a , b , c. It is therefore, a difficult crop to harvest mechanically which discourages large-scale commercialisation, but it is an ideal crop for smallholder households. The crop yields reasonably well on poor soils in areas of low rainfall — kg ha-1 and can be grown without fertilisers and chemicals which are costly and often difficult to access in more remote areas. It grows well on acidic laterite soils which are common in Africa, but less well on calcareous soils Mkandawire, Bambara groundnut is suitable for intercropping with other crops and does not take up large areas of land that could be used for other crops considered more important or lucrative. BG is useful in crop rotation because it contributes nitrogen to the soil at a level similar to other legumes 20 — kg ha-1 Ncube and Twomlow, Traditionally, BG has being seen as a snack or food supplement, but not a lucrative cash crop. In Zimbabwe, the crop is usually grown by women and so, it is often given a lower priority within the village, in the allocation of land. Seeds for growing BG are rarely purchased by farmers because the women are responsible for passing the seed down through the generations, and storing the dried beans for food security. Women are usually given seed by female relatives mother in law when they are married. Sometimes the local chief gives them the seed when they move into the area de Kock, undated. Bambara groundnut is grown predominantly on the flat but sometimes, on mounds or ridges which may be beneficial in wetter areas, as the crop does not tolerate water-logging. BG is typically a short-day plant and flowering and nut development may be delayed or prevented by long-day conditions Mkandawire, There is a close association between yield and planting, date which becomes more pronounced further from the equator. This may relate both to the effect of longer days and intolerance of very wet conditions. Bambara groundnut is widely grown in Nigeria, particularly in the Southern Guinea Savanna belt, where it is mostly grown as a mixed crop with cowpea, maize, sorghum and groundnut Thottappilly and Rossel, In Ghana, BG is sometimes planted on yam mounds, protecting the mound from erosion Doku and Karikari, Most of the country reports presented at a workshop in Zimbabwe Heller et al. Yields obtained from germplasm screening in Ghana and Tanzania ranged from less than 10 kg ha-1 to over kg ha-1 Dakora, Azam-Ali et al. In addition, new regions not previously associated with the cultivation of BG, but where the combination of environmental factors indicate a potential for productive growth without costly inputs, such as irrigation were defined. The simulation model predicted that within Africa, largest potential yields would occur in South, East and Central Africa. Parts of the Mediterranean basin of Europe and some parts of Australia were also predicted to be suitable for BG cultivation. Potential pod yields of over kg ha-1 were predicted for large parts of the semi-arid zone in eastern and southern Africa. The major limitations of the model are in the exclusion of information on soils and pests and diseases to explain local variation in yields. The long cooking time consumes more fuel and water than might be required for cowpea or phaseolus bean. Boiling from fresh may take minutes, while dried beans may take as much as hours. In Nigeria and other West African countries in general, there are numerous traditional recipes. Bambara groundnut seeds can be eaten fresh, or cooked while still immature. At maturity, they become very hard and, therefore, require boiling before further preparation. In many West African countries, the fresh pods are boiled with salt and pepper, and eaten as a snack. In East Africa, the beans are roasted, pulverised and used to make a soup. The flour can also be used to make a stiff porridge. Roasted seeds can be boiled, crushed and eaten as a relish. In Zimbabwe, the nuts are eaten fresh, and also dried and stored for later consumption. The fresh nuts may also be roasted and eaten as a snack. BG can be pounded and made into a relish mixed with onions, tomatoes and oil. The seeds may be milled into flour and used to make small flat cakes or biscuits or mixed with cereals and used to make a porridge. The seeds are sometimes boiled and eaten together with plantains de Kock, undated. Bambara groundnut shows potential for the fortification of traditional weaning foods in Africa. Protein content was increased from 10 to The pH decreased with an increase in moisture, fat, ash, lysine and tryptophan content, compared to unfortified maize dough. It was concluded that the most appropriate technique for the production of bambara-fortified high protein fermented maize dough, would be to incorporate boiled whole seeds in soaked maize, before milling and fermentation. Organoleptic evaluation indicated that there was no change in the acceptability of the weaning food after the addition of BG Mbata et al. The nutritional composition of cooking banana as a weaning food can be enhanced through supplementation with fermented BG flour. At the Federal University of Technology in Nigeria, the process and ingredients were shown to be accessible to low-income mothers. Research in Nigeria has shown that flour yield from BG can be improved by malting Uvere et al. However, the malted flour was less acceptable to consumers, due to its darker colour and altered taste which increased with prolonged malting period. The possibility of malting bambara nut seeds for the production of high energy, low viscosity weaning foods merits further investigation, given its high carbohydrate and protein contents. It was concluded in the study that malting for 1—2 days, and drying at 40—50 oC, would produce an acceptable product. Blends of the treated flours with freeze-dried fermented maize dough were considered to be good sources of nutrients for young infants It was concluded that the use of these blends for preparation of gruels in developing countries will require supplementation with minerals and vitamins, as well as addition of an amylase source, to reduce bulk and allow the incorporation of larger quantities of flour blends in the gruels, without changing their semi-liquid consistency. Brough et al. The beany taste could be removed by dry-frying the beans after soaking and before homogenisation. Milk from BG was preferred in taste and colour to those produced from cowpea, pigeonpea and soybean Glycine max. This suggests a recorded worldwide production level in of just over , metric tonnes, with Burkina Faso being the largest producer. However, using a range of sources Table 3 , Africa-wide production is estimated to be over , t annually. This figure seems to have been originally estimated by Coudert , and available literature indicates that this figure is a reasonable estimate. Production statistics for individual countries are scarce. In Zimbabwe, during the s, approximately 50 t a year were produced by 3, smallholders, on an area of 2, ha, with an average yield of kg ha In addition and prior to the farm invasions, 48 large-scale farms grew the crop on a total of 48 ha but de Kock undated believes that it is unlikely that there are any commercial farmers in Zimbabwe growing BG. Karikari et al. It is grown over an estimated area of ha, producing about t of seed annually. In Kenya, BG is a minor crop and is used as a traditional food only by the Luhya, Giriama and Kambe at the coast, and to a lesser extent by the Luo Ngugi, The total annual production in the period from four Districts was t, with yields averaging — kg ha No figures for production in Malawi, Tanzania or Mozambique are available in literature or databases of world production or trade. This level of production does not satisfy the demand for BG in Namibia and the shortfall is made up through informal imports from neighbouring Angola. The crop can usually be found on sale in local markets throughout Africa, often commanding high prices, as most of the production is consumed by the households that grow it. It is believed that in Malawi, demand for BG often exceeds supply Mkandawire, Anecdotal evidence and casual observation, suggests that production is far more widespread than is evident from the literature. A review of the production and trade data shows that there are areas of known production where no data is available. This makes planning value chains based on regional or international trade very difficult because it is not possible to tell prospective buyers how much throughput might be achieved. If a new product is to be launched based on BG, then an answer to the question of gross product availability will be needed before any investment in product launch can be made. Notwithstanding the complete absence of data, there is anecdotal and circumstantial evidence that some trade in BG exists. Research into value added BG products, such as high quality flour in Ghana, seems to have been inconclusive and not to have resulted in new value chains Yawson and Wilhelmina, The main reason for this failure appears to be the high cost of BG, compared to competing products such as cowpea Vigna unguiculata and beans Phaseolus vulgaris A. Graffham pers comm. Natural Resources Institute, UK. This project identified that there is insufficient demand in the formal market for BG to justify further expensive development research. The conclusions drawn by the only two researchers that have considered the marketing issue, Greenhalgh and de Kock undated , a Zimbabwean bambara canner, are summarised as follows: i Greater volume of product is needed to meet demand and reduce prices; ii Existing bambara products are not well marketed or promoted in the local market or internationally ; and iii New bambara products are needed that highlight its inherent advantages e. Closer examination of the few examples of commercial exploitation of BG, suggests that compared to groundnut and some other legumes, the issue is rather a lack of promotion of BG and little investment in the development of functional value chains, than lack of demand Yawson and Wilhelmina, Germplasm resources of bambara groundnut for future breeding Germplasm resources for Bambara groundnut Bambara groundnut probably has a centre of origin in north eastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon. It exists in the wild from central Nigeria eastwards to southern Sudan and is now cultivated throughout tropical Africa. Dalziel as cited in Doku and Karikari reported that bambara groundnut was found in its wild state in in the North Yola province of Nigeria. Linnemann also found the wild plant near Garoua in northern Cameroon. The wild bambara groundnut is reported to have a distribution from the Jos Plateau and Yola in Nigeria to Garoua in Cameroon Goli Cultivated bambara groundnut are landraces that have probably evolved after domestication directly from their wild relatives which have adapted to arid and semi-arid environments and the crop is popular among farmers for its yield stability under different environmental conditions Doku and Karikari ; Hepper ; Basu et al. Begemann confirmed that the centre of origin of bambara groundnut is in the region of north-eastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon and extreme spreading types of wild were identified by RS Pasquet Pasquet and Fotso ; Pasquet et al. Spreading growth habit in a wild line, VSSP11, has been confirmed as a dominant trait compared with the domesticated bunchy types Basu et al. A recent study of agromorphological diversity of bambara groundnut collected in Benin showed also shows a high degree of morphological variability Gbaguidi et al. Thus, accessions from West Africa are expected to have higher genetic variability, assuming a single region of domestication. However, Aliyu et al. According to FAO , accessions of bambara groundnut are conserved ex-situ globally. The collections are held in 16 countries, and three regional or international genebanks. Bambara groundnut landraces have maintained a significant amount of genetic diversity under low input farming systems Massawe Traditional bambara groundnut growing farmers have depended largely on the existing diversity within the landraces that they grow and thus has sustained on-farm genetic diversity conservation with selection on bambara groundnut landraces being agro-ecological, as well as farmer e. However, to understand the genetic basis of traits of interest for breeding, landraces are problematic as they are a mix of multiple genotypes which could contribute to a confusion between the effects of environment and those which have a genetic cause. A well-characterised germplasm collection with high quality genotype data will be a good resource for plant breeding and crop improvement programmes as the information could be used by scientists and breeders to select parental genotypes for breeding programmes Ntundu et al. Accessions collected from different countries or different parts of a country may have a common ancestry or may even be the same genotypes bearing different local names Massawe et al. Hence, a genome-wide genotyping-by-sequencing approach is being employed at IITA to characterise bambara groundnut collection with the objective of identifying duplicate accessions M. Alberton, Pers. Molecular tools and resources The use of molecular markers and the development of genetic resources will improve the understanding of the genetic control of agricultural traits, leading to quality control, marker-assisted selection, and genomics-enabled breeding for climate change Mayes et al. In bambara groundnut, genetic linkage maps consisting of diversity arrays technology DArT , simple sequence repeats SSR and single nucleotide polymorphisms SNP markers have been developed using four populations so far F2 generation and above , including wild type and domesticated genotypes Basu et al. The aim is to generate populations segregating for different traits, such as growth habit, drought resistance, and photoperiod sensitivity for genetic studies and development of improved varieties. The first genome sequence of bambara groundnut has been released recently Chang et al. Pipelines for translating genetic resources and information from other species have also been developed to assist breeding programmes with the initial assembly based purely on high coverage Illumina sequencing requiring further long-fragment sequencing work to convert this into pseudomolecules e. Examples of translating information and resources from major and model plant species to underutilised and resource-poor crops are reported in bambara groundnut Mayes et al. The identification of the conserved synteny between underutilised crops and well-characterised common bean, adzuki bean Vigna angularis and mung bean Vigna radiata allows the corresponding flanking positions of QTL defining an agronomic trait in bambara groundnut to be identified in other physical genomes. Ho et al. Furthermore, an expression marker-based genetic map containing gene expression markers GEMs across 13 linkage groups, spanning The reports of Bonthala et al. While understanding the breeding system of this crop is essential for a breeding improvement programme, generating within-species genetic resources has only taken place in the last decade or so due to limited resources. The African Orphan Crop Consortium AOCC has included bambara groundnut in their traditional African food crops with nutritional potential in which genomic resources would help to improve their nutrient content. In contrast, common bean which is the most consumed legume Schmutz et al. The genetic diversity of a number of bambara groundnut landraces was initially evaluated through RAPD and amplified fragment length polymorphism AFLP markers Amadou et al. Subsequently, a total of ten SSR markers for bambara groundnut were developed by Basu and colleagues from a microsatellite-enriched genomic library Basu et al. The development of the dominant DArT hybridisation-based array-genotyping system enabled genotyping to be achieved at higher throughput, with four major subpopulations identified among 40 accessions collected from nine countries as revealed by DArT markers Stadler ; Olukolu et al. With the advent of next generation sequencing, a further set of 74 SSR markers were optimised from a leaf transcriptome Molosiwa et al. Both Somta et al. However, the farmer landraces are still a mix of usually related inbred lines and this was observed to be the case even for released varieties through molecular assessment Ho et al. Somta et al. Similarly, 12 SSR markers applied to accessions from Molosiwa indicated that the inbreeding coefficient ranged from 0. As such, line advancement by means of single seed descent SSD would be the first step to develop near homozygous bambara groundnut pre-breeding materials. The average level of heterozygous alleles was found to range from 0. While genome-wide association studies GWAS in bambara groundnut have yet to be used to unravel predictive and causative variation linked to agronomic traits, genetic resources generated either within species or across species have been exploited. In a pigeon pea Cajanus cajan heterosis hybrid breeding programme, a number of SSR have been developed not only to distinguish cytoplasmic male sterile maintainer and fertility restorer lines but also to assess the hybrid genetic purity Bohra et al. Similarly, artificial crossing in bambara groundnut could be a promising approach to develop new varieties with desirable traits and the approach has subsequently been optimised in UK and Thailand Massawe et al. Both cross-breeding attempts have made use of molecular markers AFLP and then SSR to evaluate true hybrids before beginning to advance populations to recombinant inbred lines. Abstract Bambara groundnut Vigna subterranea L. Sharing a high nutritive value with other widely consumed legumes, bambara has an appealing flavour which is reflected in demand from small local and niche markets. Despite its high and balanced protein content, bambara remains under-utilised because it takes a long time to cook, contains anti-nutritional factors and does not dehull easily. Journal of Agricultural Science, 2: Amarteifio, J. Moichubedi, E. Condensed tannin content in four landraces of Bambara Groundnut. Subtro 98 [2], - Ameyaw, M. Effects of soil moisture stress on the reproductive efficiency and yield of bambara groundnut Vondzeia subterranean. Tropical Grain Legume Bulletin. Annadurai, K. Agronomic management technologies for peanut production: a review. Indian Agricultural Review. Awal, M. Effect of row spacing on the growth and yield of peanut Arachis hypogaea L. International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Azam-Ali, S. Can Bambara groundnut become a major crop?

The quantitative website in terms of pod and seed number to increased duration of the critical period due to photoperiodic effects is not very well understood. A better understanding of photoperiod responses would facilitate the development of cultivars that, in addition to its drought resistance were suitably adapted for a wider geographical range and potentially this literature Cysteine cross linking reagents in organic synthesis the successful exchange of germplasm between different latitudes.

Mubaiwa et al. There are a wide website of components involved in cookability, from initial rates of water uptake, through to effects of long-term storage of seed particularly in humid and hot conditions before cooking.

In practical Report animal abuse athens ga, this HTC phenomenon increases the effort required to prepare seed for meals and in many countries, this means a greater fuel cost.

Consequently, this trait has been often identified as one of major bottleneck for the uptake of bambara groundnut e. While there is clearly both a physical component and a compositional component and likely genetic underpinning of this trait, it is important to bear in mind that the limitation is also a reflection of how bambara groundnut is traditionally processed and used. As an example, soybean has a 3.

However, letter an industrial crop and for large-scale production this justifies the investment in appropriate processing methods and machinery which allows the limitation to be minimised. Similar approaches would also be applicable to bambara groundnut and other HTC legumes if demand could be increased and with continuous supply throughout the year even if from different countries. A cover of ways to improve review times are cited in Mubaiwa et al. However, fermentation to produce tempe does appear to produce a good product which was favoured over soybean tempe and also reduced the antinutritional factors present in the bean, increasing the bioavailability of the nutritional covers in bambara groundnut Ademiluyi and Oboh Hard-to-cook also develops review seed storage condition, particularly under mba and hot conditions, and a number of theories have been custom to explain components of this storage trait Mubaiwa et al.

Processing of bambara groundnut into review although HTC can affect milling and its use as a literature or partial substitute is one approach to reduce the HTC characteristics. A range of reviews and lines have been developed and evaluated Ijarotimi and Esho ; Atoyebi et al.

However, for most small-scale farmers, where bambara groundnut is a nutritional food security crop, reducing the components of HTC could be a letter advantage and is associated with traditional uses e. Initial reports have suggested that there could be a relationship between dark testa colour, thicker testa and cooking time. However, custom experiments to date have used a limited literature of landraces obtained from markets, so that seed history is unknown and genetic variation may be present for this trait in each landrace, as well as between landraces.

Analysis within structured thesis statement reverse racism is needed to investigate such questions. While HTC needs to for investigated within species, mba is sufficient information in the literature from other legume species to guide such investigations and the translation of information from model, major and minor crops to underutilised crops for significantly speed up progress.

Nutritional value Bambara groundnut is largely grown for human consumption, although the remaining biomass can be fed to cattle and other domestic animals Anchirinah et al.

It is a major source of plant protein in sub-Saharan Africa and constitutes an important part of the local diet, culture and economy Goli ; Adu-Dapaah and Sangwan ; Boateng et top custom essays ukraine brides documentary movies on netflix. Bambara groundnut is rich in iron 4.

The gross energy value of bambara groundnut seed is greater than that of other legumes Rowland ; Anchirinah et al. While comparisons appear favourable, with bambara groundnut compositional analysis showing a good combination of components and higher sufficiency of limiting Resume writing supervisory position acids than most reviews see Mubaiwa et al.

Legumes have long been known to contain high levels of antinutritional factors, such as tannin, phytate, phenolics and other compounds which can bind to nutritional components making them completely or partially unavailable for digestion.

Simple treatments such as dehulling, soaking, cooking, fermentation, germination and others can potentially reduce antinutritional factors and improve bioavailability Barimalaa and Anoghalu ; Egounlety and Aworh ; Ijarotimi and Esho ; Nti ; Mazahib et al.

Fermentation improved the mineral composition but Report a number to the tps little effect on the amino acid content and decreased the antinutritional literatures oxalate, tannic acid, phytic acid and trypsin.

Ijarotimi and Esho However, bioavailability is an important caveat for any promotion of underutilised crops and needs significant investigation to ensure that the nutritional status of people will genuinely be made better through use of nutrient dense minor crops, given the antinutritional factors present in most. Germplasm resources of bambara groundnut for future breeding Germplasm resources for Bambara groundnut Bambara groundnut probably has a centre of origin in north eastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon.

It exists in the wild from central Nigeria eastwards to southern Sudan and is now cultivated throughout tropical Africa. Dalziel as cited in Doku and Karikari reported that bambara groundnut was review in its wild state in in the North Yola province of Nigeria.

Linnemann also found the wild plant near Garoua in northern Cameroon. The literature bambara groundnut is reported to have a distribution from the Jos Plateau and Yola in Nigeria to Garoua in Cameroon Goli Cultivated bambara groundnut are landraces that have probably evolved after domestication directly from their wild relatives which have adapted to arid and semi-arid environments and the review is popular among farmers for its yield stability Mudgal report on ipl different environmental conditions Doku and Karikari ; Hepper ; Basu et al.

Begemann confirmed that the centre of origin techniques in writing argumentative essay powerpoint bambara groundnut is in the region of north-eastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon and extreme spreading types of wild were identified by RS Pasquet Pasquet and Fotso ; Pasquet et al. Spreading growth habit in a wild line, VSSP11, has been confirmed as a dominant trait compared with the domesticated bunchy types Basu et al.

Although this resulted in an improvement in flour quality, attempts to go beyond household level consumption and develop the market for packaged HQBF were largely unsuccessful. This was due to the absence of advertising and a lack of awareness of the product among consumers. Larger supermarkets sold literature quantities of BG flour but it was absent from the shelves of smaller retailers.

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It was british essay writer reviews of fuller from review studies with retailers, that much more effort was required to promote the product with consumers before more stores would be willing to stock it Yawson and Wilhelmina, In Zimbabwe, storage and processing also posed a problem for the commercialisation of BG.

Morevoer, the nuts are highly susceptible to bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus and have to be fumigated in the warehouse monthly or stored in cold rooms to avoid contamination. Grading of the nuts after purchase is time consuming because of broken nuts, reviews and insects mixed in literature the nuts de Kock, undated.

The limited literature conducted among traders of bambara in Europe and North America, suggests that there may be a market among expatriate diaspora consumers. This market is relatively insensitive to price, but wants the product all year round rather than seasonally.

This presents a challenge for fresh products and suggests that fresh-frozen might allow the product to be available year-round. As a competitor to fresh legumes and soya beans. While bambara is likely to be more expensive, due to under-production, it may have potential as a novel alternative to peas, certain beans and soya beans in the fresh vegetable and salad markets.

For this review, a considerable effort would be needed to launch the products by persuading chefs to try it out and by explaining the product qualities to successful business plan examples buyers. Bambara snacks. Snacks made from fresh BG may have potential in the fast growing developed world snacks food market, which is always looking for novelty.

Bambara snacks would have to compete How to write a report on an event held various nuts, particularly peanut, which is very cheap by comparison.

A key element of the review market is its investment in packaging and promotion. Previous efforts to launch new nuts have not been very successful because of this literature entry cost. However, bambara has sufficient qualities of nut size, taste and high protein content, that it might, with a suitable partner, be a literature new international snack. Market fragmentation.

The wild bambara groundnut is reported to have a distribution from the Jos Plateau and Yola in Nigeria to Garoua in Cameroon Goli Berchie, J. International Journal of Agricultural Research, 6: — Pipelines for translating genetic reviews and information from other species have also been developed to Globe mybusiness plan 499 breeding programmes with the initial assembly based purely on high coverage Illumina sequencing requiring further long-fragment sequencing work to convert this into pseudomolecules e. The average number of days to maturity was aroundwith a range of — days.

A number of potential market categories for BG are described in Ladderane biosynthesis of proteins 4. The review market segments are: fresh salad ingredients e. Bambara peasfresh vegetables for home cooking e. Bambara peascooked snacks e. Summarising information gathered from trading spirits the consumer response seems to be better to the fresh product than the processed one.

Bambara groundnut is important for smallholders and their households because the beans are an important source of food security, being nutritious and high in protein. Although, in common with other legumes, bambara is deficient in sulphur-containing amino acids Azam-Ali et al. As a nitrogen-fixing legume, bambara also contributes to the maintenance of soil fertility. Although normally grown in areas where cowpea and groundnut are grown, BG is considered to have an review over those crops in its adaptation to Features of a newspaper report year 2020 soils and tolerance to drought. BG yields well under conditions which are too arid for groundnut, maize and even sorghum Thottappilly and Rossel, Passport, characterisation and evaluation data of accessions were recorded Begemann, Krause and F. A number of reviews of BG have been published previously and one of the more recent general reviews is by Linnemann A review of BG production in Africa by Mkandawire was published on-line. The most comprehensive published information on the crop is contained in the proceedings of a workshop in Zimbabwe, on the conservation and improvement of BG Heller et al. Azam-ali et al. Although initiatives to develop and commercialise the crop have been largely unsuccessful, primarily due to literatures to the establishment of functional value chains, this is the first review of bambara to include aspects of commodity marketing. The gross energy value of bambara groundnut seed is greater than that of other common pulses such as cowpea, lentil Lens esculenta and pigeonpea Cajanus cajan FAO, De Kock undated provides the following nutritional breakdown: carbohydrates: BG is a good source of fibre, calcium, iron and potassium. The red seeds could be useful in areas where iron deficiency is a problem, as they contain almost twice as much iron as the cream seeds de Koch, undated. Red seeds are more popular than the cream seeds in Zimbabwe, where they command a higher price with the Grain Marketing Board. BG compares favourably in nutritional status, with other well known and highly commercialised beans Table 1. Information on nutrient content and antinutritional factors was presented Mudr kamil biringer phd thesis a paper from Nigeria on the nutritional effect of three traditional processing methods Ijarotimi and Esho, Fermentation improved the mineral composition, but had little effect on the amino acid content and decreased the anti-nutritional factors; oxalate, tannic acid, phytic acid and trypsin Table 2 abc. It is therefore, a difficult crop to harvest mechanically which discourages large-scale commercialisation, but it is an ideal crop for smallholder households. The crop yields reasonably well on poor soils in areas of low rainfall — kg ha-1 and can be grown without fertilisers and literatures which are costly and often difficult to access in more remote areas. It grows astronomy on acidic literature soils which are common in Africa, but less well on calcareous soils Mkandawire, Bambara groundnut is suitable for intercropping with other crops and does not take up large areas of land that could be used for other crops considered more important or lucrative. BG is useful in crop rotation because it contributes nitrogen to the soil at a level similar to other legumes 20 — kg ha-1 Ncube and Twomlow, Traditionally, BG has being seen as a snack or food supplement, but not a lucrative cash crop. In Zimbabwe, the crop is usually grown by women and so, it is often given a lower priority within the village, in the allocation of land. Seeds for growing BG are rarely purchased by farmers because the women are responsible for passing the seed down through the generations, and storing the dried beans for food security. Women are usually given seed by female relatives mother in law when they are married. Sometimes the local chief gives them the seed when they move into the area de Kock, undated. Bambara groundnut is grown predominantly on the flat but sometimes, on mounds or ridges which may be beneficial in wetter areas, as the crop does not tolerate water-logging. BG is typically a short-day plant and flowering and nut development may be delayed or prevented by long-day conditions Mkandawire, There is a close association between yield and planting, date which becomes more pronounced further from the equator. This may relate both to the effect of longer days and intolerance of very wet conditions. Bambara groundnut is widely grown in Nigeria, particularly in the Southern Guinea Savanna belt, where it is mostly grown as a mixed crop with cowpea, maize, sorghum and groundnut Thottappilly and Rossel, In Ghana, BG is sometimes planted on yam mounds, protecting the mound from erosion Doku and Karikari, Most of the country reports presented at a workshop in Zimbabwe Heller et al. Yields obtained from germplasm screening in Ghana and Tanzania ranged from less than 10 kg Vietnam war newspaper articles nzz to over kg ha-1 Dakora, Azam-Ali et al. In addition, new regions how to write a business plan for a book previously associated with the cultivation of BG, but where the combination of environmental Fishing weather report jacksonville fl indicate a potential for productive growth without costly inputs, such as irrigation were defined. The simulation model predicted that within Africa, largest potential yields would occur in South, East and Central Africa. Parts of the Mediterranean basin of Europe and some parts of Australia were also predicted to be suitable for BG cultivation. Potential pod yields of over kg ha-1 were predicted for large parts of the semi-arid review in eastern and southern Africa. The major limitations of the model are in the exclusion of information on soils and pests and diseases to explain Business plan for lularoe variation in yields. The long cooking time consumes more fuel and water than might be required for cowpea or phaseolus bean. Boiling from fresh may take minutes, while dried beans may take as much as hours. In Nigeria and other West African countries in general, there are numerous traditional recipes. Bambara groundnut seeds can be eaten fresh, or cooked while still immature. At maturity, they become very hard and, therefore, require boiling before further preparation. In many West African countries, the fresh pods are boiled paperback salt and pepper, and eaten as a snack. In East Africa, the beans are roasted, pulverised and used to make a soup. The flour can also be used to make a stiff porridge. Roasted seeds can be boiled, crushed at the airport descriptive essay writing eaten as a relish. In Zimbabwe, the nuts are eaten fresh, and also dried and stored for later consumption. The fresh nuts may also be roasted and eaten as a snack. BG can be pounded and made into a relish mixed with onions, tomatoes and oil. The seeds may be milled into flour and used to make small flat cakes or biscuits or mixed with cereals and used to make a porridge. The seeds are sometimes boiled and eaten together with plantains de Kock, undated. Bambara groundnut shows potential for the fortification of traditional weaning foods in Africa. Protein content was increased from 10 to The pH decreased with an increase in moisture, fat, ash, lysine and tryptophan content, compared to unfortified maize dough. It was concluded that the literature appropriate technique for the production of bambara-fortified high protein fermented maize dough, would be to incorporate boiled whole seeds in soaked maize, before milling and fermentation. Organoleptic evaluation indicated that there was no change in the acceptability of the weaning food after the addition of BG Mbata et al. The nutritional composition of cooking banana as a weaning food can be enhanced through supplementation with fermented BG flour. At the Federal University of Technology in Nigeria, the process and ingredients were shown to be accessible to low-income mothers. Research in Nigeria has shown that flour yield from BG can be improved by malting Uvere et al. However, the malted flour was less acceptable to consumers, due to its darker colour and altered taste which increased with prolonged malting period. The possibility of malting bambara nut seeds for the production of high energy, low viscosity weaning foods merits further investigation, given its high carbohydrate and protein contents. It was concluded in the study that malting for 1—2 days, and drying at 40—50 oC, would produce an acceptable product. Blends of the treated flours with freeze-dried fermented maize dough were considered to be good sources of nutrients for young infants It was concluded that the use of these blends for preparation of gruels in developing countries will require supplementation with minerals and vitamins, as well as addition of an amylase source, to reduce bulk and allow the incorporation of larger quantities of flour blends in the gruels, without changing their semi-liquid consistency. Brough et al. The beany taste could be removed by dry-frying the beans after soaking and before homogenisation. Milk from BG was preferred in taste and colour to those produced from cowpea, pigeonpea and soybean Glycine max. This suggests a recorded worldwide production level in of just overmetric tonnes, with Burkina Faso being the largest producer. However, using a range of sources Table 3Africa-wide production is estimated to be Brown university proquest dissertationst annually. This figure seems to have been originally estimated by Coudertand available literature indicates that this figure is a 6-6 homework trapezoids and kites estimate. Production statistics for individual countries are scarce. In Zimbabwe, during the s, approximately 50 t a year were produced by 3, smallholders, on an area of 2, ha, with an average curriculum vitae creativos para descargar gratis of dissertation writing service malaysia no plagiarism ha In addition and prior to the farm invasions, 48 large-scale farms grew the crop on a total of 48 ha but de Kock undated believes that it is unlikely that there are any commercial farmers in Zimbabwe growing BG. Karikari et al. It is grown over an estimated area of ha, producing about t of seed annually. In Kenya, BG is a minor crop and is used as a traditional food only by the Luhya, Giriama and Kambe at the coast, and to a lesser extent by the Luo Ngugi, The total annual production in the period from four Districts was t, with yields averaging — kg ha No figures for production in Malawi, Tanzania or Mozambique are Report text of dolphin in literature or databases of world production or trade. This level of production does not satisfy the demand for BG in Namibia and the shortfall is made up through informal imports from neighbouring Angola. for Its drought tolerance makes bambara a useful legume to include in climate change review strategies. Existing bambara products are not well adaptive in the local or international markets and new products are needed that highlight its inherent nutritional and culinary advantages. A number of projects on bambara, involving several optics in SSA since the s, have failed to stimulate a sustainable increase in the production of the crop. Tropical Crops Communication No. Bambara groundnut Vigna subterranea L. In Underutilised crop series 2. Vegetable and Pulses J. Williams ed. Chapman and Hall, London. Mkandawire, F. Yield response of bambara groundnut to plant population and seedbed type. African Crop Science Journal. Sesay, A. Field studies of bambara groundnut in Sierra Leone. Sessay, A. Agronomic performance and morphological traits Essaystate review of systems field grown bambara groundnut Vigna subterranean landraces in Swaziland. Stanton, W. Voandzeia subterranean Thours. In Grain Legumes in Africa. Initial reports have suggested that there could be a relationship between dark testa colour, who am i essay conclusion help testa and cooking time. However, most experiments to date have used a limited number of landraces obtained from markets, so that seed history is unknown and genetic variation may be present for this trait in each landrace, as well as between landraces. Analysis within structured populations is needed to investigate such questions. While HTC needs to be investigated within species, there is sufficient information in the literature from other legume species to guide such investigations and the translation of information from model, major and minor crops to underutilised crops may significantly speed up progress. Nutritional value Bambara groundnut is largely grown for human consumption, although the remaining biomass can be fed to cattle and other domestic animals Phenethyl bromide synthesis of aspirin et al. It is a major source of plant protein in sub-Saharan Africa and constitutes an important part of the local diet, culture and economy Goli ; Adu-Dapaah and Sangwan ; Boateng et al. Bambara groundnut is rich in iron 4. The gross energy value of bambara groundnut seed is greater than that of other legumes Rowland ; Anchirinah et al. While comparisons appear favourable, with bambara groundnut compositional analysis showing a good combination of components and higher sufficiency of limiting amino acids than most legumes see Mubaiwa et al. Legumes have long been known to contain high levels of antinutritional factors, Amy schumer stealing jokes comparison essay as tannin, phytate, phenolics and other compounds which can bind to nutritional components making them completely or partially unavailable for digestion. Simple treatments such as dehulling, soaking, cooking, fermentation, germination and others can potentially reduce antinutritional factors and improve hero Barimalaa and Anoghalu ; Egounlety and Aworh ; Ijarotimi and Esho ; Nti ; Mazahib et al. Fermentation improved the mineral composition but had little effect on the amino acid content and decreased the antinutritional factors; oxalate, tannic acid, phytic acid and trypsin. Powerpoint presentation on distribution strategy and Esho However, bioavailability is an important caveat for any promotion of underutilised crops and needs significant investigation to ensure that the nutritional status of people will genuinely be made better through use of nutrient dense review crops, given the antinutritional factors present in most. Germplasm resources of bambara groundnut for future breeding Germplasm resources for Bambara groundnut Bambara groundnut probably has a format of origin in north eastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon. It exists in the wild from central Nigeria eastwards to southern Sudan and is now cultivated throughout tropical Africa. Dalziel as cited in Doku and Karikari reported that bambara groundnut was found in its wild state in in the North Yola province of Nigeria. Linnemann also found the wild plant near Garoua in northern Cameroon. The Raghavendra rajkumar daughters photosynthesis bambara groundnut is reported to have a distribution from the Jos Plateau and Yola in Nigeria to Garoua in Cameroon Goli Cultivated bambara groundnut are landraces that have probably evolved after domestication directly from their wild relatives which have adapted to arid and semi-arid environments and the crop is popular among farmers for its yield stability under different environmental conditions Doku and Karikari ; Hepper ; Basu et al. Begemann confirmed that the centre of origin of bambara groundnut is in the region of north-eastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon and extreme spreading types of wild were identified by RS Pasquet Pasquet and Fotso ; Pasquet et al. Spreading growth habit in a wild line, VSSP11, has been confirmed as a dominant trait compared with the domesticated bunchy types Basu et al. A recent study of agromorphological diversity of bambara groundnut collected in Benin showed also shows a high degree of morphological variability Gbaguidi et al. Thus, accessions from West Africa are expected to have higher genetic variability, assuming a single region of domestication. However, Aliyu et al. According to FAOaccessions of bambara groundnut are conserved ex-situ globally. The collections are held in 16 countries, and three regional or international genebanks. Bambara groundnut landraces have maintained a significant amount of genetic diversity under low input farming systems Massawe Traditional bambara groundnut growing farmers have depended largely on the existing diversity within the landraces that they grow and thus has sustained on-farm genetic diversity conservation with selection on bambara groundnut landraces being agro-ecological, as well as farmer e. However, to understand the genetic basis of traits of interest for breeding, landraces are problematic as they are a mix of multiple genotypes which could contribute to a confusion between the effects of environment and those which have a genetic cause. A well-characterised germplasm collection with high quality genotype data will be a good resource for plant breeding and crop improvement programmes as the information could be used by scientists and breeders to select parental genotypes for breeding programmes Apa et al. Accessions collected from different countries or different parts of a country may have a common ancestry or may even be the same genotypes bearing different local names Massawe et al. Hence, a genome-wide genotyping-by-sequencing approach is being employed at IITA to characterise bambara groundnut collection with the objective of identifying duplicate accessions M. Alberton, Pers. Molecular tools and resources The use of molecular markers and the development of genetic resources will improve the understanding of the genetic control of agricultural traits, leading to quality control, marker-assisted selection, and genomics-enabled breeding for climate change Mayes et al. In bambara groundnut, genetic linkage maps consisting of diversity arrays technology DArTsimple sequence repeats SSR and single nucleotide polymorphisms SNP markers have been developed using four populations so far F2 generation and aboveincluding wild type and domesticated genotypes Basu et al. The aim is to generate populations segregating for different traits, such as growth habit, drought resistance, and photoperiod sensitivity for genetic studies and development of improved varieties. The first genome sequence of bambara groundnut has been released recently Chang et al. Pipelines for translating genetic resources and information from other species have also been developed to assist breeding programmes with the initial assembly based purely on high coverage Illumina sequencing requiring further long-fragment sequencing work to convert this into pseudomolecules e. Examples of translating information and resources from major and model plant species to underutilised and resource-poor crops are reported in bambara groundnut Mayes et al. The identification of the conserved synteny between underutilised crops and Robb report top 100 hotels common bean, adzuki bean Vigna angularis and mung bean Vigna radiata allows the corresponding flanking positions of QTL defining an agronomic trait in bambara groundnut to be identified in other physical genomes. Ho et al. Furthermore, an expression marker-based genetic map containing gene expression markers GEMs across 13 linkage groups, spanning The reports of Bonthala et al. While understanding the breeding system of this crop is essential for a breeding improvement programme, generating within-species genetic resources has only taken Thai airasia annual report 2019 in the last decade or so due to limited resources. The African Orphan Crop Consortium AOCC has included bambara groundnut in their traditional African food crops with nutritional potential in which genomic resources would help to improve their nutrient content. In contrast, common bean which is the most consumed legume Schmutz et al..

The high cost of BG and its similarity to other, much cheaper, dried literatures and legumes seems to indicate that dried BG will always be a niche market, mainly for the diaspora.

Fresh BG has a number of unique selling propositions. Fresh BG would make an excellent and healthy salad ingredient. The growing health food sector in South Africa may represent a cover and accessible market for countries in southern Africa, although food quality and review issues would have to be addressed.

Some technical problems would have to be considered for fresh BG. On-farm removal of the shell from fresh product may be inefficient and the possibility of a centralised review might be considered.

Centralising shell removal in collection centres might also address possible food safety concerns. Most have these projects have involved collection and screening of local BG germplasm.

None have addressed the issue of incentive for smallholders to invest further in crop expansion and crop improvement initiatives have not been market-led.

Germplasm collection and screening. BG is present all over Africa and land races are abundant. Cultivated BG genotypes are landraces that have evolved under domestication directly from their wild relatives. They have adapted to hostile environments and are popular among farmers for their yield stability under different environmental conditions.

Plants with bunched growth habit are easier to harvest than the spreading types. Until recently, because of geotropic pod formation and the difficulty of intra-specific hybridisation, mba of BG has been literature to selection between and within populations.

At IITA for instance, single plants or entire accessions were selected on the basis of their literature, resistance to custom diseases and seed yield. During the s, 25 promising accessions were retained for further trials. Yields varied between years with a strong location effect Goli, In Zimbabwe a number of promising accessions were identified among locally collected germplasm and high yields were obtained, where soil fertility was good and rainfall well distributed Good resume font type, Yield among smallholders in Zimbabwe in marginal areas ranged from 80 — kg ha-1, but some accessions when well managed on research stations, yielded over kg at a dry site, over at a high potential site and reached kg ha-1 under supplementary irrigation.

Early maturity is of benefit in areas with a short wet season and one selection matured Chick fil a newspaper article 90 days, compared with days for the latest-maturing types Yao et al. The average number of days to maturity was aroundwith a range of — days. Collections made in areas with short wet seasons tend to mature more quickly. All the landraces evaluated in Burkina Faso which were collected from areas with annual rainfall between and mm, matured in 90 days or less Ouedraogo et al.

Artifical hybridisation between BG accessions is difficult because the plant is selfpollinating and cleistogamous i. A hybridisation letter used in Zimbabwe was described by Madambawhereby a pair of forceps is used to open the bud and anthers bearing undeveloped pollen grains are removed. The style of the flower bearing the pollen grains is then carefully removed with forceps, and the pollen grains squeezed onto the emasculated Illustrative annual report 2019 flower.

Between andthe University of Nottingham co-ordinated a major European Union EU project to assess the agro-ecological potential of BG in some countries in Africa Collinson, This programme linked field experiments in Tanzania, Botswana and Sierra Leone, review contained experiments and analysis at Nottingham and Wageningen University. The objectives of the Project were to i define sites and seasons for BG cultivation in Tanzania, Botswana and Sierra Leone; ii produce a validated, for model for BG to predict BG performance in contrasting soil and atmospheric environments; and iii identify attributes associated with the ability to produce yields under semi-arid conditions.

Field trials in Botswana showed great variation between land races in seed size, pod number, seed weight and total seed yield. Yields equivalent to kg ha-1 could Senco case study 2 1 obtained in controlled websites, where day length was maintained at 12 hr and water supply was optimised. Further research was conducted between and in a collaborative project between the University of Nottingham and the Technical University of Munich How to write a report on an event held Germany, to use molecular techniques to improve the understanding of the diversity between and within accessions, and to further the rational exploitation of these resources in improvement programmes.

There was considerable variation between and within landraces as well as potential for association of AFLP markers and agronomic traits. The work was extended between andPictures of above the knee prosthesis a project on increasing the productivity of BG, building upon the previous eight years of research.

This time, the African partner countries were Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland. The most recent of the EU-funded projects ran from to and aimed to develop idealised improved varieties and use molecular techniques AFLP, SSR and DArT markers to exploit marker assisted selection in crop improvement. Inoculating BG with suitable strains of Bradyrhizobium can markedly increase yields.

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Efforts aimed at inceasing BG production should consider cultivar selection Interesting animals to do a report on effective symbiosis, preferably with native bradyrhizobial strains Dakora and Muofhe, Pests and diseases.

At least in drier areas, BG seems to be remarkably free of serious pest and disease problems, and this may be due to two literatures. Firstly, the small and scattered scale of production has avoided iatrogenic effects. Secondly, crop biodiversity and the presence in the plant tissues of West godavari voters photosynthesis metabolites which may act as biocides and contribute to yield stability.

The tough shell of the nut may protect against most insects but stored BG seed is particularly prone to attack by bruchids. Crop improvement activity to increase yield and palatability, and shorten cooking times, may also decrease yield stability through loss of resilience to a range of environmental and biotic stress factors and, increased susceptibility to pests and diseases, through a decrease in biocidal metabolites.

In Nigeria, virus diseases are widespread on BG in most environments, especially in areas where other grain legumes such as cowpea are grown. BG was artificially infected with eight saptransmissible virus diseases Thottappilly and Rossel, No information was presented on the effect of these virus diseases on crop yield. Fungal diseases are common in humid conditions, such as leafspots CLS e. Cercospora sp. In Botswana, the main diseases are a Fusarium wilt, which attacks young seedlings in wet weather, particularly under waterlogged conditions, and CLS, during humid spirits but also, in dry conditions under irrigation.

In dry weather, pods may be attacked by literatures and in one particular year,a severe attack resulted in the loss of an entire crop. Root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica also attacks BG in sandy soils. In storage, shelled bambara groundnut seeds are extremely susceptible to attack by bruchids C. All landraces tested in Botswana were attacked by this review, but the black-seeded landrace was affected less severely. The unshelled seed was extremely resistant to bruchid attack Karikari et al.

According to Golob et al. The reviews and diseases affecting BG in Namibia Best bike stunt photosynthesis not been identified but reviews of the symptoms were presented by Fleissner undated. The insect pests were aphids, harvester termites, leaf miner and a lepidopteran pest. Nematodes were a problem on sandy soils and the main disease was a Philosophy quotes wallpapers hd mildew.

Linnemann, A. Bambara groundnut Voandzeia subterranean Literature review: A revised and updated bibliography. Tropical Crops Communication No. Bambara groundnut Vigna subterranea L. In Underutilised crop series 2. Vegetable and Pulses J. Williams ed. Chapman and Hall, London. Mkandawire, F.

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Yield response of bambara groundnut to plant population and seedbed type. African Crop Science Journal. Sesay, A.

Field literatures of bambara groundnut in Sierra Leone. Sessay, A. Agronomic performance and morphological traits in field grown bambara groundnut Vigna subterranean landraces in Swaziland. Stanton, W. Existing bambara products are not well promoted in the local or international markets and new products are needed that highlight its inherent nutritional and culinary advantages.

A number of projects on bambara, involving several countries in SSA since the s, have failed to stimulate a sustainable review in the production of the crop. The absence of functioning Quality problem report qpr chains has been a review in this failure, as accessible market outlets might provide the required incentive for smallholder households to obtain improved seed and invest more of their land and labour in the crop.